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Source: Department for International Development (2009). Factsheet – Water and Sanitation. UK
The diagram shows that the population in African and Asian regions have no access to improved sanitation.
Improved sanitation usually means passing through a hierarchy of pit latrines, with pour flush latrines and septic tank latrines the plausible options. In urban areas the picture is more mixed. For high-density urban areas sewerage systems have obvious advantages.
Source: UNDP (2006). Human Development Report 2006, p. 113. NY
School pit latrines
Source: Torsten Krekeler (BGR)
School vault latrines
Source: Torsten Krekeler (BGR)
The 'water footprint' of a country is defined as the volume of water needed for the production of goods and services consumed by the inhabitants of the country. The water footprint of a country can be calculated with either the top-down approach or bottom-up approach. In the top-down approach, one calculates the water footprint as the sum of water use in the country, plus gross virtual water import into the country, minus gross virtual water export. In the bottom-up approach, we aggregate the individual water footprints of the inhabitants of a country to get the total water footprint of a country. Individual water footprints are calculated by multiplying all consumed goods and services with their respective virtual water content.
Based on the top-down approach, the global average water footprint is found to be 1240 m3/yr/cap. There are large differences between countries. In the USA the average water footprint is 2500 m3/cap/yr. In China the average water footprint is 700 m3/cap/yr.
Average national water footprint per capita (m3/cap/yr). Green means that the nations' water footprint is equal to or smaller than the global average. Countries with red have a water footprint beyond the global average. Period: 1997-2001.
The diagram shows clearly that Finland has the highest intensity with around 24 R&D personnel per 1,000 total employment, followed by Sweden (18), Denmark (16) and Japan (15). China, South Africa and Mexico however demonstrate the lowest intensity of R&D personnel.
Source: OECD Science, Technology and Industry Outlook 2008: 48
The overall public and private investment needs for improved water supply and sanitation and water resources management are considerable. However, at the country level, meeting such investment challenges is highly feasible and within the reach of most nations.
Source: Stockholm International Water Institute, SIWI (2004-2005): "Making Water a Part of Economic Development: The Economic Benefits of Improved Water Management and Services". Stockholm. Sweden
There are currently more than 1000 million people in the world that lacks access to an easily accessible and safe water source, such as a connection to water mains or a protected well. Instead, water access is limited or available through unprotected sources. The target, under the Millennium Development Goals, is to halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and sanitation.