Click here to load some different questions!
Source: Georg Houben (BGR)
- Dirty water and poor sanitation account for the vast majority of the 1.8 million child deaths each year from diarrhoea (almost 5,000 every day) – making it the second largest cause of child mortality.
- In addition water-related diseases such as diarrhoea and parasitic infections cost 443 million school days each year – equivalent to an entire school year for all seven-year-old children in Ethiopia – and diminish learning potential.
Source: UNDP (2006): Human Development Report 2006, p. 22. NY
According to Population Action International, based upon the UN medium population projections of 1998, more than 2.8 billion people in 48 countries will face water stress or water scarcity conditions by 2025. An area is experiencing water stress when annual water supplies drop below 1700 m3 per person. Water scarcity means that the annual water supply is below 1000 m3 per person. This graphic shows which African nations are expected to be experiencing water stress, and which are expected to be facing water scarcity, by the year 2025. It also includes a graphic which shows that as the world's population continues to grow, a higher proportion of the population will be affected by water stress and water scarcity.
The figure shows that most expenditure of R&D still takes place within the main OECD regions (with the United States the major location for foreign R&D). Developing countries are increasingly attracting R&D centres, however, although R&D investments remain relatively small from a global perspective. In summary:
- Throughout the decade, North America has been the leading spender on R&D, both in 1990 with 38.2% as well as in 2000 with 37.2 %, spending US$ PPP 202 billion on R&D of the total world expenditure. The decline between the years depends on the general reducing United States' world share of Science & Technology (S&T) output indicators such as the number of publications in the Science Citation Index (SCI), which fell from 37.3% in 1990 to 33.2% in 2000.
- Asia follows North America, which invests 30.5% of world R&D expenditure. Countries in the Asian region could double their R&D investments from 1990-2000 (from US$ PPP 94.2 billion in 1990 to 235.6 billion in 2000), mainly due to growing expenditure in China.
- Europe has the third highest level of R&D investment, with expenditure of US$ PPP 202.9 billion. Its share of global investment declined more than that of North America, from 33.9% in 1990 to 27.2% in 2000. More than half of this decrease can be attributed to falling investment levels in Eastern Europe, which by 2000 represented only 3% of the total expenditure on R&D. In absolute terms, however, European investments increased by almost 50% over the decade (from US$ 138.8 billion in 1990 to 202.9 billion in 2000). This increase was led by the growth of expenditure in the European Union (EU) countries. In 2000, the EU was responsible for 86.1% of European expenditure. At the same time, Europe's research intensity remained stable over the decade, at approximately the 1.7% value.
- The diagram clearly shows that both sub-Saharan African countries and the Arab states have much lower levels of expenditure - only 1% in 1990 and 2000. South Africa accounted for 62% of the estimated total expenditure in Africa in 2000, spending 0.8% of its GDP on R&D and contributing significantly to fluctuations of regional figures over the decade.
Source: UIS Bulletin on Science and Technology Statistics, (2004): Issue No. 1, April 2004. A Decade of Investment in Research and Development (R&D): 1990-2000
Flooding in Paraguay
Source: Torsten Krekeler (BGR)
Result of the Tsunami 2004
(Banda Aceh 2006)
Source: Torsten Krekeler (BGR)
- Flooding alone cost the world economy USD 27,3 billion in 2002. Floods in Asia resulted in economic losses of approximately USD 6 billion and 3500 fatalities.
- Above all the poor in the low-income countries remain acutely vulnerably to exogenous shocks. Shocks such as natural disasters (floods, droughts) have significant adverse consequences on growth prospects in these countries, particularly in the agricultural communities that lack sufficient water resource management.
- Poor countries in particular can make the biggest economic gains to mitigate natural disasters (e.g. by an improved water resource management). The flood control functions of wetlands can provide annual flood attenuation benefits of more than USD 1750 per hectare of wetland area.
Source: Stockholm International Water Institute, SIWI (2004-2005): "Making Water a Part of Economic Development: The Economic Benefits of Improved Water Management and Services". Stockholm. Sweden
The diagram shows clearly that Finland has the highest intensity with around 24 R&D personnel per 1,000 total employment, followed by Sweden (18), Denmark (16) and Japan (15). China, South Africa and Mexico however demonstrate the lowest intensity of R&D personnel.
Source: OECD Science, Technology and Industry Outlook 2008: 48